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Here you can find articles with technical expertise and background information on powder and bulk solids handling and processing.
Spray (micro) encapsulation of sensitive substances in matrix form An overview of essential oil and vitamin case studies
Spray (micro) encapsulation of sensitive substances in matrix form
An overview of essential oil and vitamin case studies Phytochemicals are increasingly found in many food, chemical and agricultural items. Product and process optimization is becoming ever-more important in all of these industries, with a focus on quality, manufacturing efficiency, stability and formulation costs. Essential oils are volatile substances with a relatively high vapor pressure; they are susceptible to oxidation and light and may change or may even lose their properties when directly exposed to stressors. Like other sensitive, volatile, odor- or taste-intensive liquid active ingredients, they must therefore be protected from the environment or vice versa. For this protection and to simplify handling — as well as for better dosage and targeted release — these substances are therefore progressively offered and used in encapsulated and/or free-flowing forms. Various processes can be used to deliver products with a compact structure. During process development, the most suitable procedures and equipment
21.07.2021  |  159x  | 
More efficiency and profit by accurate  weighing  Preventing waste by more accurate weighing and dosing. A summary of where weighing can assist your process and save you money.
More efficiency and profit by accurate weighing
Preventing waste by more accurate weighing and dosing. A summary of where weighing can assist your process and save you money. Given the constantly rising prices of raw materials, the investment in accurate weighing and precise filling is worthwhile more than ever. In this article, we give some examples of how to achieve optimum efficiency with proven technology. Intake with ship unloader When discharging vessels or transporting via conveyor belts, a throughput weigher can be used to weigh the continuous bulk flow in batches. A built-in bunker weigher allows the individual weights to be totalised and the product flow to be recorded accurately. It becomes even more efficient if this can be done via a mobile installation. Incoming and outgoing control with weighbridge To keep a good eye on the global product flow of your company, all goods that enter or leave your plant should be weighed. The weighbridge can be linked to access control systems such as number plate cameras, barriers, badge systems, etc., making it impossible to enter or leave the site without being weighed. Logging in
07.07.2021  |  216x  | 
Optimising functional ingredients for enhanced nutrition  Fluidised bed and spouted bed processes offer manufacturers almost unlimited possibilities in terms of optimised particle design and the functionalisation of ingredients, the properties of which can be fine-tuned
Optimising functional ingredients for enhanced nutrition
Fluidised bed and spouted bed processes offer manufacturers almost unlimited possibilities in terms of optimised particle design and the functionalisation of ingredients, the properties of which can be fine-tuned Fluidised bed and spouted bed processes by Glatt offer manufacturers almost unlimited possibilities in terms of optimised particle design and the functionalisation of ingredients, the properties of which can be fine-tuned using spray granulation, agglomeration, microencapsulation and coating. The consumer demand for fortified products is constantly growing and has been well received by end users. The form in which health-promoting probiotics, dietary fibres or antioxidants are consumed depends on both the preferences and everyday habits of the individual: some prefer sports drinks, protein bars or enriched iced tea, whereas others favour more direct dosage forms, such as effervescent tablets, sachets or capsules. However, although the manufacturing processes associated with these products present numerous challenges, a universal requirement is that functional ingredients must be stable during storage, precisely dosed, dissolve quickly or have a depot effect. Key
12.05.2021  |  581x  |   | 
Explosion-Proof vs. Intrinsically Safe Equipment There are two characteristic electronic safety standards: intrinsically safe and explosion-proof. Which one do you need?
Explosion-Proof vs. Intrinsically Safe Equipment
There are two characteristic electronic safety standards: intrinsically safe and explosion-proof. Which one do you need? In regard to electronic safety standards, there are two characteristics that are often referred to in manufacturing: Intrinsically safe and explosion-proof. Sometimes the term “explosion proof” is also used to describe the environment of operations and both means of protection, environment or equipment, are acceptable for safe manufacturing processes. Intrinsically Safe Intrinsically safety equipment combats hazards because it is incapable of causing sparks or combustion. This means that intrinsically safe equipment must limit electrical current, voltage and heat. This reduces the risk of explosion in hazardous and combustible environments such as distilleries, chemical plants, fuel refineries or textile manufacturers. Intrinsically safe equipment may be more critical in areas impacted by system breakdown, vapors and gases, combustible dust or a combination of all three. Explosion-Proof Utilizing explosion-proof or flame-proof equipment is a method of protection
30.04.2021  |  127x  | 
Increasing demand for used machines Circular economy specialist Surplus Select is seeing an increasing demand for used machines, for the food, cosmetics or animal feed industries.
Increasing demand for used machines
Circular economy specialist Surplus Select is seeing an increasing demand for used machines, for the food, cosmetics or animal feed industries. What started out as a social mission to bring together suppliers and customers of used machines, has now grown into a circular economy mindset within the process industry. The Surplus Select circular economy initiative, founded in 2001, gives start-ups, R&D departments and pilot plants the opportunity to achieve limited-budget production by using pre-owned processing machines. "We started by offering very basic services, but now we have become a serious market player, and are being approached by large multinationals for the acquisition of high-quality, sustainable solutions”, says Rick Soepenberg, founder and owner of Surplus Select. Whether it’s machinery for the food, cosmetics or animal feed industries, Surplus Select has over 400 eye-catching machines at their 1500 m2 warehouse and 4000 m2 outdoor site in the Dutch village of Swifterbant; all waiting for new owners. According to Soepenberg, buying up large stocks of surplus machinery is a risky but nevertheless
24.04.2021  |  1142x  | 
Improved performance for crop protection products Plant protection products, be they herbicides or fungicides, must be dust-free, free-flowing, stable, safe to handle + provide good redispersibility properties.
Improved performance for crop protection products
Plant protection products, be they herbicides or fungicides, must be dust-free, free-flowing, stable, safe to handle + provide good redispersibility properties. Product development usually focuses on the optimization of successful products: That means improved effectiveness and storage, safer handling and easier dosing. As well as these long-standing challenges, however, farmers and manufacturers of crop protection products are facing an increasingly fragmented market with regionally specific requirements. Due to globalisation and imbalances in the ecosystem, it is becoming increasingly necessary to control pests in a targeted manner and protect plants from previously unknown threats. Yet a growing market for organic farming means an increase in demand for biological or biodegradable crop protection agents which are obtained, for example, by fermentation processes. Industrial processing means these intermediate products are not temperature-stable and require gentle treatment at low temperatures. A further challenge is climate change: Cultivated areas in normally temperate climate regions are now exposed to weather events such
11.03.2021  |  226x  |   | 
Handling Bulk Materials; What’s the Big Deal? Process technologies have advanced enormously the past decades. But  flow problems have persisted. This article will discuss some of the more common causes. 
by R.J. Farnish
Handling Bulk Materials; What’s the Big Deal?
Process technologies have advanced enormously the past decades. But flow problems have persisted. This article will discuss some of the more common causes. by R.J. Farnish The movement and storage of bulk materials within processes has been a fundamental activity for many plants since the event of the industrial revolution in the 18th century. Process technologies have advanced enormously in their sophistication and efficiency over the intervening period to the current day. If it were possible to bring an engineer from the early days of industrialisation to see what is available today they almost certainly would not believe their eyes at the sheer diversity of plant equipment tailored for specific process requirements and end products. Sadly, what they probably would be able to relate to are the silos, bunkers and hoppers that function poorly and are often on the receiving end of the not so tender attentions of plant operators. This article will discuss some of the more common causes of processing/flow problems that have persisted over the decades. Fundamentals The discharge problems that are experienced when handling bulk
05.03.2021  |  198x  | 
Hopper inserts, an approach to solving poor flow Enhanced hopper performance through sustained examination of  materials, hopper geometries and influence of insert design.
Hopper inserts, an approach to solving poor flow
Enhanced hopper performance through sustained examination of materials, hopper geometries and influence of insert design. The enormous volume of bulk materials handled every year means solids must be stored in hoppers, intermediate bulk containers, silos and other storage devices, often several times before being processed. However, storage can result in a number of handling issues including erratic surges, arching, ratholes, packing, flushing, dead regions, feed upsets, and in some cases can reduce the suitability of the product for the next process stage [IMG02**R45] Although it is seemingly counterintuitive to introduce an obstacle into the storage container as a solution to these problems, the use of inserts can enhance storage container performance. An insert is usually a static fitting on the inside of a bulk storage container, including liners and other modifications that alter the internal space of a vessel. Flow regimes are determined by how the individual particles in a bulk solid respond to local forces at contact points. An insert alters the flow regime of a material
02.02.2021  |  219x  | 
Improving flow in hoppers with Sigma2-relaxation Plane flow is less troublesome as axisymmetric flow. Sigma2-relaxation will show even less flow problems. By: Lyn Bates
Improving flow in hoppers with Sigma2-relaxation
Plane flow is less troublesome as axisymmetric flow. Sigma2-relaxation will show even less flow problems. By: Lyn Bates Stresses on bulk materials can be applied as compressive, tensile or in shear. Whatever combination is applied can be resolved into principle stresses by means of Mohr’s circles. i.e, stresses acting normal to surfaces at right angles to each other without shear stresses. Stresses applied on a sample in one principle plane induce a deformation, creating a reduced stress at 90° according to the Poisson’s ratio of the material (See fig. 2a). That is the change in the width per unit width of a material relative to its change in its length as a result of strain. Bulk material flowing down a conical converging channel has to deform in two planes under the compressive stresses of reducing diameter. Product in a plane flow channel only converges is one plane so, despite being confined, it will flow down walls about 10° less steep that in a cone. A plane flow channel that widens slightly at 90° to the converging plane will allow a larger degree of relaxation to
28.01.2021  |  164x  | 
CenTrax for RWE Eemshaven power plant Downtime of the conveyor belts caused delays in supply and additional costs. Within a month CenTrax tracker rollers proved to be the solution.
CenTrax for RWE Eemshaven power plant
Downtime of the conveyor belts caused delays in supply and additional costs. Within a month CenTrax tracker rollers proved to be the solution. The constant downtime of the conveyor belts caused delays in supply and additional costs. RWE consulted TBK Group, after which it was decided to install our CenTrax tracker rollers for a trial period. Within a month, it was already clear that CenTrax was the solution to their misalignment problem. Large coal and biomass power plant RWE Generation’s Eemshaven power plant is the largest coal and biomass power plant in the Netherlands. Covered conveyor belts ensure dust-free transport of the coal from ships to the power plant or the storage yard. This process was always accompanied by jerks and jolts due to frequent belt misalignment. The constant downtime of the conveyor belts caused delays in supply and additional costs. RWE consulted TBK Group, after which it was decided to install our CenTrax tracker rollers for a trial period. Within a month, it was already clear that CenTrax was the solution to their misalignment problem. [IMG03**R45**] Misalignment due to
18.12.2020  |  166x  |   | 
The importance of the Tensile Strength of powders Tensile Strength is the prime component of cohesion, which has many adverse consequences, especially in small scale, as in pharmaceutical applications
The importance of the Tensile Strength of powders
Tensile Strength is the prime component of cohesion, which has many adverse consequences, especially in small scale, as in pharmaceutical applications Great emphasis is directed to securement of measured values of the flow properties of bulk materials because of the need to design storage, process and handling equipment that provides reliable performance. Until the 1960’s the design of bulk storage equipment depended largely on empirical experience because of the lack of a scientific understanding of the behaviour in bulk of particulate materials. From a background in soil mechanics, [1], hopper design parameters were established in the 1960’s based on the measurement of bulk density, wall friction and shear strength values. [2]. This initiated industrial, academic and Government interest in the benefits that industry may gain from a scientific approach to the subject of bulk technology with seminars, conferences, exhibitions, magazines and specialised courses springing up all over the world. Shear plane length limitations of the Jenike call were overcome by annular cells, [3], [4], [5]. Interest in the dynamic
17.12.2020  |  144x  | 
How to increase capacity of an inclined screw conveyor When the axis of a screw conveyor is inclined, the capacity falls off progressively. Changing the arrangement of the casing can help.
How to increase capacity of an inclined screw conveyor
When the axis of a screw conveyor is inclined, the capacity falls off progressively. Changing the arrangement of the casing can help. The capacity of a screw conveyor falls off progressively as the axis of the casing is inclined. This is mainly because the dynamic repose slope surface of the material is unchanged and is limited by material carrying over the centre shaft by its rotation to fall back into the prior pitch space so the inclination of the screw flight cuts off an underside section of the material in transit. There is also a small degree of back leakage from the upper region, where the radius of the screw separates from the vertical wall of the casing above the centre shaft level. This effect increases with inclination as gravity supplements the force of the friction of the casing wall restraining the contact layer of the material. Moreover, when the axis of the conveyor is inclined, not only is the geometry of the screw affected, but the sliding angle of material on the flight surface is reduced. The inner region of a screw flight face has a much coarser inclination than at the tip
14.12.2020  |  265x  | 
Pressure reduction in silos: intermediate cones a reliable solution Higher silos may show problems such as quaking or honking, or too high stresses on the product stored.  Intermediate cones are a reliable and well designable solution.
Pressure reduction in silos: intermediate cones a reliable solution
Higher silos may show problems such as quaking or honking, or too high stresses on the product stored. Intermediate cones are a reliable and well designable solution. If, for whatever reason, a company invests in larger silos, one must be aware of problems. The bulk material experiences greater pressure in a larger silo. This means that the properties of the bulk material change in a negative way. It is therefore very important to keep that pressure under control. An important instrument is the wall of the silo. One can apply rings or coat the wall. This article deals with the application of intermediate cones. With a well-designed intermediate cone one can reduce the pressure, the product flows again, and shocks will be a thing of the past. Bigger silos, bigger problems Increasing capacities or shorter lead times sometimes require larger stocks of raw materials. For companies that store their raw materials in silos, this means an investment in higher or wider silos. This may lead to problems not experienced before, because the bulk solid experiences greater pressure in a larger silo. This changes the properties of the bulk solid,
11.12.2020  |  179x  | 
Matching feeder extraction pattern with hoppers Hopper design is primarily based on the nature and physical properties of the material to be stored, but the feeder is also very important.
Matching feeder extraction pattern with hoppers
Hopper design is primarily based on the nature and physical properties of the material to be stored, but the feeder is also very important. The criteria for hopper design are primarily based on the nature and physical properties of the material to be stored. The first decision is to choose an appropriate flow regime, Generally - mass flow is selected for products that deteriorate over time, funnel flow for inert, free flowing materials and expanded flow for poor flow, inert contents. [1]. This step determines the slope of the hopper walls in relation to the wall friction value. The minimum hopper outlet size depends on the shear strength of the material and outlet shape. [2]. Consideration has to be given to products that segregate of fluidise to ensure that their discharged condition is suitable for further processing and ultimate use. Plane flow from ’V’ shape of hopper sections offers benefits for flow and capacity over radial flow in conical shaped hoppers, but requires a feeder to extract from an outlet slot. Feeders play a crucial role in the performance of a hopper and form an integral
09.12.2020  |  218x  | 
Silo design: avoiding flow problems through adequate design Avoid silo problems, such as bridging, funnel flow, ratholing, arching, segregation and product decay. Silo design for gravity flow; most economic.
Silo design: avoiding flow problems through adequate design
Avoid silo problems, such as bridging, funnel flow, ratholing, arching, segregation and product decay. Silo design for gravity flow; most economic. To avoid problems in silos concerning flow, product ageing or decay, silo design is necessary. The design of a silo is based on the most economical case: gravity flow. Wall friction, internal friction and bridging properties determine the applicable hopper angle and opening diameter. In some cases through the design procedure it is found that a "simple" silo is not possible. This however saves a lot of work and costs. [IMG01**R45**] INTRODUCTION To prevent flow problems in a silo, proper silo design is necessary. The most obvious (and the most economical) way of storing bulk solids is in a silo with gravity flow. In this case the silo consists of a cylindrical or rectangular part with a hopper. The hopper lets the product converge to the opening. This simple fact is the direct cause of most problems, such as: unsteady flow, segregation, remaining product, ageing or decay of the product, shaking or quaking of the silo, flooding, or: flow does not occur at
27.11.2020  |  902x  | 
Screw feeder design for hassle-free feeding Proper feeding through well designed pitch profile and core diameter variation
Screw feeder design for hassle-free feeding
Proper feeding through well designed pitch profile and core diameter variation In solids handling processes screws are often used to feed powders from silos. This has a number of advantages: contamination of powder is avoided, as well as pollution of the surroundings. A proper feed rate can be achieved in a large range of feed capacity. When using a screw feeder, the hopper of the silo can be wedge shaped. This offers an additional advantage with regard tp flow. However, if a screw feeder is not designed properly, core flow and bridging can occur. Also the risk of flooding (uncontrollable flow) or excessive wear is present. A proper design, where pitch and core diameter are adjusted to the properties of the product, prevents these problems. Introduction In a production process solids will be handled at one point or another. Raw materials are often in the form of solids, and also at processes with mainly liquids or gasses, there usually are steps where powders are used. The feeding of these components is of great importance. Too much or too
27.11.2020  |  593x  | 
The gentle processing of highly volatile oils by fluid bed technology Sensitive raw materials, especially those that are volatile or of natural origin, require particularly gentle process conditions.
The gentle processing of highly volatile oils by fluid bed technology
Sensitive raw materials, especially those that are volatile or of natural origin, require particularly gentle process conditions. Spray granulation, spray coating and (micro)encapsulation procedures have proven to be methods of choice, as they enable high yields, low temperatures and bespoke properties. When it comes to cosmetics, product development often focuses on proven, multifunctional ingredients. This is in addition to the ongoing demand for natural ingredients, as consumers increasingly look for effective cosmetic products that neither harm their health nor the environment. Glatt Ingenieurtechnik, the German expert in particle design, process development and plant engineering, offers unique particle processing solutions based on fluidised bed and spouted bed technologies for essential oils, collagens, active substances, stabilizers, enzymes, fragrances, aromas, vitamins and controlled release products, all of which can be optimally produced, protected and refined. Efficient fluidised and spouted bed processes Unique flow, mechanical and thermodynamic properties make fluid bed technology
03.11.2020  |  569x  | 
Vibration screening machines: Round vs. Rectangular When a Round Vibro Screen Would be a Better Bet
Vibration screening machines: Round vs. Rectangular
When a Round Vibro Screen Would be a Better Bet Vibration screening machines are among the most popular screening machines on the market. No wonder, as this type of screening can be used for almost any product, with the exception of easily breakable bulk solids. It is particularly effective as the screening movement for vibration screening machines is, unlike with linear screening machines, vertical as well as horizontal, meaning even small vibration screening machines can achieve large levels of output. Vibration screening machines are available in a variety of different sizes and designs, meaning that the shape of the screen – which influences many different aspects of the screening process – probably plays the biggest role when it comes to selecting an appropriate machine. Round vibration screening machines which have specific benefits, and are even the better choice for some applications. Round screening machines Small space, large screening surface area – the low amount of space required per
19.10.2020  |  1548x  | 
Process Technologies to Optimize Detergent Manufacturing Cleaning agents and detergents can be produced environmentally friendly and effective, using fluid bed and spouted bed technologies. Experts from Glatt Ingenieurtechnik explain.
Process Technologies to Optimize Detergent Manufacturing
Cleaning agents and detergents can be produced environmentally friendly and effective, using fluid bed and spouted bed technologies. Experts from Glatt Ingenieurtechnik explain. As a manufacturer of consumer goods, the detergent industry must respond to megatrends like no other. One of these drivers is sustainability; eco-friendly biosurfactants have been available since 2009 and, now, alternative complexing agents such as α-ADA or MGDA-Na3 can be produced from renewable raw materials and used to replace phosphates. According to the German Zukunftsinstitut (Future Institute), the neo-ecology megatrend is causing a reorientation of the values of global society, culture and politics and will have a defining impact on the 2020s [1]. Consumers and business partners alike are asking about transparent value creation and whether social aspects are being considered. As an example, seamless traceability has long been standard practice. Yet, the ongoing microplastics debate calls for a rethink when it comes to encapsulated fragrances or when the fibres of functional clothing have to be fished out of wastewater. Solutions for all these requirements can
02.10.2020  |  5606x  | 
Why you shouldn`t do without protective screening This articles gives reasons why you shouldn’t do without protective screening in industrial manufacturing processes.
Why you shouldn`t do without protective screening
This articles gives reasons why you shouldn’t do without protective screening in industrial manufacturing processes. Protective screening is probably one of the most common screening procedures in industrial manufacturing processes. You will learn why you shouldn’t do without protective screening, and what makes a good protective screen using the example of the reworked Engelsmann screening machine JEL Fix II. Why protective screening? Protective screens are used to eliminate disruptive foreign objects and impurities from bulk goods. These foreign objects can be plastic residues, for example, or metal parts such as screws which end up in the product by accident and can cause contamination. Lost knives for cutting bagged goods or protective gloves have also been found in products. To ensure a consistently high quality in the end product, these foreign objects must be separated before the product is put into its sales packaging. If this doesn’t happen, the worst-case scenario for the manufacturer is product recalls and a damaged public image. Contamination doesn’t just
15.07.2020  |  2051x  | 
How does the capacitive measuring principle work? The function of a moisture sensors using a capacitive measuring principle is explained.
How does the capacitive measuring principle work?
The function of a moisture sensors using a capacitive measuring principle is explained. There are plenty of different measuring methods to determine the residual moisture of material such as bulk solids. Now we are focusing on the capacitive functional principle. Inter alia it finds its use in in-line moisture measurement (directly integrated within a working process). It can be classified into two methods of moisture measurement, direct and indirect. Direct measurement Direct measuring procedures are e.g. the Karl-Fischer-Tritation or drying out material (loss of water by using a drying cabinet, probably the most often used method). Indirect measurement Moisture sensors and systems belong to the indirect moisture measuring techniques as they allow conclusion concerning the water content by using for example the capacitive moisture measuring principle. Further possible measurements work with microwave, infrared or conductance methods. The main criteria is that these procedures do not detect the residual moisture of the bulk solids directly. Rather
23.08.2018  |  17169x  | 
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