The importance of the Tensile Strength of powdersTensile Strength is the prime component of cohesion, which has many adverse consequences, especially in small scale, as in pharmaceutical applications
Great emphasis is directed to securement of measured values of the flow properties of bulk materials because of the need to design storage, process and handling equipment that provides reliable performance. Until the 1960’s the design of bulk storage equipment depended largely on empirical experience because of the lack of a scientific understanding of the behaviour in bulk of particulate materials. From a background in soil mechanics, , hopper design parameters were established in the 1960’s based on the measurement of bulk density, wall friction and shear strength values. .
This initiated industrial, academic and Government interest in the benefits that industry may gain from a scientific approach to the subject of bulk technology with seminars, conferences, exhibitions, magazines and specialised courses springing up all over the world. Shear plane length limitations of the Jenike call were overcome by annular cells, , , . Interest in the dynamic